Wine Titratable Acidity
The amount of acid present in a wine can directly affect its color and flavor, and can serve to balance the sweeter or more astringent wine components. This balance is challenging as too much acid may make a wine tart or sharp, while too little may make a wine flat or flabby. Proper acidity in wine is important to making the wine stable, palatable, and a refreshing accompaniment to food. The proper acid level of a finished wine can vary based on the wines desired style, with sweeter wines usually requiring somewhat higher levels of acidity to maintain proper balance with their sweeter components.
Understanding the relationship between pH and acidity is important throughout the entire winemaking process to ensure a stable, quality product. This relationship is complex since pH is the measurement of hydrogen ion activity and acidity is the concentration or buffering capacity of a particular acid. For example, adding more acid to a wine may not appreciably affect the pH because of compounds such as phenols and other acids present that act in a buffering capacity. If a pH adjustment is required, tartaric acid addition is generally preferred because it is relatively stable and is a stronger acid than malic or citric, yielding a greater pH adjustment per amount used. The complex correlation between pH and TA makes it crucial to assess both parameters before and after making any adjustments.
Below are the most common products measuring titratable acidity during the wine making process.
A variety of titrations systems are available including one that is programmed with only wine methods including free and total sulfur dioxide, total titratable acidity and yeast assimilable nitrogen. Titration systems are available with 1 or 2 analog input boards that allow multiple sensors to be used. These systems can also be configured to have one or two dosing pumps. Having multiple dosing pumps allow for the use multiple titrants.
For high throughput some of the titration systems can be connected to an auto sampler for automated analysis of multiple samples.
Hanna Instruments pioneered the innovation of mini titrators for customers that were performing the titratable acidity titration manually to be able to use an automated system at a fraction of the price.
The mini titrators offer the precision of dosing by a syringe with the ease of pre-measured reagents and pre-standardized titrants.
Titrants & Reagents
This category contains the reagents and titrants that are used with both the titration systems and mini titrators.
A variety of pH electrodes are available that include application specific versions made specifically for grape juice and must. These versions feature a ground glass junction with a plastic sleeve. These features are part of Hanna CPS (clogging prevention system) technology to prevent clogging of the reference junction by solids found in grape juice and must.
In this category are pH calibration buffers including pH 8.2 used in the titration of total titratable acidity and Yeast Assimible Nitrogen. The pH calibration buffers are available in a variety of sizes from single use sachets to bottles.
In this category are the solutions used to maintain pH electrodes that are used in titratable acidity titrations. These solutions include reference electrolyte fill solutions, storage solutions and application specific cleaning solutions used to remove wine stains and deposits.
Accessories include the spare parts for the mini-titrators. These include the replacement tubing with valve, syringe, beakers and stir bars.